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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

392        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

of men of insight the inquiries opened up new vistas of knowledge
in regard to the nature of pre-mature man, and gave fuller meaning
to the doctrine of evolution as applied to the human soul.   This,
indeed, is the most important contribution made to educational
theory by Dr. Hall.  Dr. Hall is first and foremost an evolutionist.
His prime interest is in psychic rather than in biological evolution,
but he does not put the two in opposition. Nemo psychologies nisi
biologus is his cardinal principle.   For him, " mind is almost,
possibly, quite, co-extensive with life, at least animal life ";
and in introducing evolutionary thought into the field of the
human soul, he claims to be making a necessary and inevitable
extension of Darwinism.   Following the lead given by Darwin
himself in his Descent of Man and in his discussion of The Expres-
sion of the Emotions, he has investigated a great many phases of
feeling and will, as the " psychophores, or bearers of mental
heredity in us," and out of his investigations has brought the
conviction that soul, like body, obeys the law of recapitulation
according to which the history of individual growth repeats the
course of racial development.   The essence of the soul, he says,
" is its processes of becoming.   It is not a fixed, abiding thing,
but grew out of antecedent soul states as different from its present
forms as protoplasm is from the mature body.   Every element
has shaped and tempered it.   Its long experience with light and
darkness, day and night, has fashioned its rhythm indelibly.
Heat and cold, the flickering of flame, smoke and ashes have
oriented it towards both thermal extremes.   Cloud forms have
almost created the imagination.   Water and a long apprenticeship
to aquatic and arboreal life have left as plain and indelible marks
upon the soul as upon the body.   Sky, stars, wind, storms, fetish-
ism, flowers, animals, ancient battles, industries, occupations,
and worship have polarized the soul to fear and affection, and
created anger and pity.   The soul is thus a product of heredity.
It is still in the rough and full of contradictions.   Where most
educated and polished externally, it still has inner veins where
barbaric and animal impulses are felt"*

The task of the educator, as Dr. Hall sees it, is to define each

stage of individual development as far as the few uncertain clues

to the past history of mind permit, in terms of this parallelism*

This is his constant endeavour in all his discussion of educational

* Adolescence, ii, 69.